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Is There A Connection Between
Ancient Indian And Hebrew Language?

A scholar finds compelling evidence for
ancient Indian influence on a global scale.

ViewZone welcomes this highly researched work by scholar, Gene D. Matlock, which is part of his complete manuscript showing the global influence of ancient India's culture and language. We welcome your comments and thoughts.

Had you been a cartographer and geographer working for the British East India company in the 17th and 18th centuries, you would have found all over India thousands of Hebrew-like place names with similar meanings in both languages as well. The map excerpt on this page shows a small section of ancient Seuna-Desa (Zion Land) in what is now Maharashtra (to right). At the bottom right of the excerpt is the city of Paithan, on the banks of the river Godivari. The Indo-Hebrews named the part of the river passing through Paithan's territory Paithan (Pison, Phison), according to their traditions. In the upper left-hand corner is the city of Satana. According to the legends of the Yadavas (Indo-Hebrews), Satana would have made the folks in Sodom and Gomorah envious. The Seunas and the Satanas decided to resolve their moral and religious differences on the battlefield. The forces of "Satan" lost, but their defeat didn't dishearten them. Eventually, we came to think of "Satan" as a being who lost the battle but not the war. The bible tells us that such a peace treaty hasn't yet been signed between these two ancient enemies.

In that part of India, the holiest of holies for the Indians, the names of many towns end in the appendage gaon. In Hebrew, gaon means "genius; great rabbinical scholar." Also in this region is an area that was once the favorite of Yadava royalty: Nashik, the exact Hebrew name for "Royal Prince." Satan is near the district called Khandesh (Land of Cain). There is also a Kodesh. Kod and Khad are Sanskrit terms for "First," "The Beginning," or "God." In Hebrew, Khadesh = "The first day of a Jewish calendar month." Notice that all these names have similar meanings and religious connotations in both languages. I invite my readers to investigate this anomaly for themselves.

The similarity of these Indian and Hebrew names certainly traumatized European colonists. Unwilling to admit that the Jews had never sprouted spontaneously in the Arabian desert, or were from outer space as I read recently, but were from the East as the bible itself tells us, they merely erased these matters from their minds or convinced themselves that they were "coincidences," even though the "coincidences" numbered in the thousands and were peppered over every region in India.

A 19th Century British Scholar Explains Why the Western World Never Learned About the Indian Origins of the Jews.

Though not generally known in this day and age, Godfrey Higgins (1772-1833), archeologist, politician, humanitarian, social reformer, and author, was one of the most enlightened and educated men of early 19th century England. He was a well-known iconoclast, rationalist, and admirer of the Jews, who vehemently opposed any kind of persecution of this ancient religious group. He wrote two oversized volumes, totaling around 1600 pages of fine print, about the Jews' Indian origins. These two volumes, entitled Anacalypsis, are extremely rare. The last printing was done in 1965 by University Books, NY. It's a difficult book to read because the author painstakingly proved the minutest of details in his dissertation. Even good readers need several weeks to finish it.

The first printing consisted of only 200 copies, twenty of which he had to give away. Only a few of the remaining 180 copies were sold. For nearly thirty years, the religious communities of England and Europe quietly suppressed the book. It has since been reprinted three times, but including the first printing, the total copies printed never totaled over a thousand. Only occasionally can it be found in a library. Even so, many authors have quoted and plagiarized it. Not a few spiritual charlatans, such as fraudulent mystics, psychics, and the Presbyterian preacher who wrote the novel on which The Book of Mormon is based, used Anacalypsis to produce their respective heresies and agendas. The famous 19th century mystic and founder of Theosophy, Madam Blavatsky, took advantage of the world's nearly total ignorance of this magnificent document, using much of Higgin's information, to convince the gullible that she had acquired her "mystical knowledge" from "otherworldly" sources called "Akashic records."

Godfrey Higgins gave an opinion that I have always espoused, which explains in part why the similarities of peoples, languages, philosophies, and place names between India and the Middle East became lost to the memory of mankind after Christianity and Islam took over the West.

"The outlines of the history of the extended empires, which I have here exhibited, would have been more conspicuous had our makers of maps and histories recorded the names of the places as they must have appeared to them. But from their native religious prejudices and necessary ignorance of the nature of the history, it seemed to them absurd to believe, that there should be places or persons in the East having exactly the same names as places and persons in the West; and to avoid the feared ridicule of their contemporaries, which in fact in opposition to the plainest evidence, and which they themselves could not entirely resist, that they thought well-founded, they have, as much as possible disguised the names. Thus, that which otherwise they would have called David-pouri, they called Daud-poutr, Solomon, Soleiman; Johnguior, Jahanguior, etc., etc. In the same way, without any wrong intention, they have been induced to secrete the truth, in many cases, from themselves, by hastily adopting the idea that the old Jewish names of places have been given by the modern Saracens or Turks, the erroneousness of which a moment's unprejudiced consideration would have shewn...I shall here merely add, that...I have observed...a great similarity in the countries where the tribes of Judah were settled in the East and in the West. The Western country seems, as much as possible, to have been accommodated by the Eastern..." (Vol. I, pp. 437-438.)

"When Mahmud of Gazna, the first Mohammedan conqueror, attacked Lahore, he found it defended by a native Hindoo prince called Daood or David. This single fact is enough to settle the question of the places not being named by Mohamedans." (Vol. I; p. 432.)

"I beg my reader to look at the ruins of the ancient cities of India: Agra, Delhi, Oude, Mundore, etc., which have many of them been much larger than London, the last for instance, 37 miles in circumference, built in the oldest style of architecture in the world, the Cyclopean, and I think he must at once see the absurdity of the little Jewish mountain tribe (the "Lost Tribes") being the founders of such a mass of cities. We must also consider that we have almost all the places of India in Western Syria...I think no one can help seeing that these circumstances are to be accounted for in no other way than by the supposition that there was in very ancient times one universal superstition, which was carried all over the world by emigrating tribes, and that they were originally from Upper India." (Vol. I; p. 432.)

"...the natives of Cashmere as well as those of Afghanistan, pretending to be descended from the Jews, give pedigrees of their kings reigning in their present country up to the sun and the moon, and along with this, they shew you the Temples still standing, built by Solomon, statues of Noah, and other Jewish Patriarchs...the traditions of the Afghans tell them, that they are descended from the tribe of Ioudi or Yuda, and in this they are right, for it is the tribe of Joudi noticed by Eusebius to have existed before the Son of Jacob in Western Syria was born, the Joudi of Oude, and from which tribe the Western Jews with the Brahmin (Abraham) descended and migrated. (Vol. I; p. 740.)

"In the valley of Cashmere, on a hill close to the lake, are the ruins of a temple of Solomon. The history states that Solomon, finding the valley all covered with water except this hill, which was an island, opened the passage in the mountains and let most of it out, thus giving to Cashmere its beautiful plains. The temple which is built on the hill is called Tucht Suliman. Afterwards Forster says, 'Previously to the Mahometan conquest of India, Kashmere was celebrated for the learning of the Brahmins and the magnificent construction of its temple.' Now what am I to make of this? Were these Brahmans Jews, or the Jews Brahmins? The inadvertent way in which Forster states the fact precludes all idea of deceit...

"The Tuct Soliman of Cashmere in the time of Bernier, was described by him to be in ruins, and to have been a temple of the idolaters and not of the Mohamedans. The Mohamedans reported that it was built by Solomon, in very ancient times. All this at once does away with the pretence that it was a building of the modern Mohamedans; and is a strong confirmation of the Jewish nature of the other names of the towns - Yuda-poor, Iod-pore, etc., etc. Bernier goes on to say...that the name of Mousa or Moses is common among the natives, that Moses died at Cashmere, and that they yet show the ruins of his tomb near the town. This is curious when connected with the fact, that the Jews of Western Syria say, no one ever knew where he was buried." (Vol. I; p. 771.)

An article in the April, 1997 issue of the Jewish magazine Moment discusses the possibility that a heavy Jewish presence once dominated India.

"A tribe of Sunni Moslems called the Pathans, now living in parts of Pakistan, number at least 15 million. The Pathan language bears traces of biblical Hebrew, and the Pathans themselves claim lineage from King Saul. They are said to follow, in varying degrees of observance, some 21 'Jewish' customs, including lighting candles on Friday night, wearing a four-cornered prayer garment, and performing circumcision on the eighth day.

Then there are the Kashmiris from Northern India, who number about five million; although they too are predominantly Sunni Moslems, many bear biblical-sounding names like Cleb (Caleb), Israel, Hahana, and Lavni..." (Searching for the Lost Tribes, by Winston Pickett, p. 51.)

Aramaic, a language as similar to Hebrew as Spanish is to Portuguese, originated in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Both Afghanistan and Pakistan were once part of India. Afghanistan seceded from Indian in the 1700s. Pakistan was cut out of India when the two nations were partitioned after World War II. Aramaic also is the source of modern Hebrew's square alphabet, used in Israel today. The Hebrew square alphabet and the truth that Hebrew is just an Aramaic dialect confirm the Indian origin of the Jews.

Those Christian and Jewish authorities who don't want it to be true that ten to thirty million Jews once lived in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Northwestern India say that it is just a "coincidence" that so many tribes and places there have biblical names. Others insist that the Moslems christened all those tribes and places. As Godfrey Higgins tells us, many of those tribes and places had already received their so-called "biblical names" millenniums before Islam was a gleam in Mohammed's eyes and many centuries before those same names started showing up in the Middle East. Some of Israel's tribal and place names also started appearing in Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Northwestern India when Sargon II and Nebuchadnezzar exiled most of the Jews to that part of the world. The confusion about the origin of those tribal and place names will always exist as long as we stubbornly refuse to give the Indo-Hebrews their rightful place in history. The Aryans and Indo-Hebrews began to overrun parts of India and the Middle East around 2000 BC, perhaps more than a thousand years previously if there is any truth to the story about the progeny of Noah.

Somehow, our brainwashed minds blank out the face that the Ancient Egyptian and Akkadian names for Hebrew, Habiru and Apiru were derived from Indo-Hebrew dialects and meant "Sons of Ophir." The truth about the origins of the Hebrews has been screaming in our faces for thousands of years, but our benumbed minds have chosen not to hear it.

What Inferences Can You Draw From the Following List?

.
Well-Known Names in the
Western World
Equivalent Names in
Indian Languages
Minoa (Ancient Greek nation). Meena (Indian ancestors of the Minoans)
Turbazu (Palestinian clan)Turvazu (Indo-Hebrew tribe)
Kopt; Guptas (Ancient Egyptian dynasty)Gupta (Ancient Indian ruling dynasty)
Saracens (Ancient Turks)Sauresena (Territory and people of Ancient India)
Arabea (Arabs)Arabi(Original inhabitants of Indo-Hebrew Makran, now part of Pakistan)
Islam (Mohammedan religion)Ishalayam (Temple of God)
Khurus or Khouros (Powerful Arab tribe to which Mohammed belonged) Kurus (Ancient Indo-Hebrew tribe)
Mecca (Islam's most sacred city.)Makka (Capital of Arabi Makran)
Riyadh (Saudi Arabian capital)Ray (Wisdom) + Yuddha (Warrior)
Mohamed (Father of Islam)Maha-Atma (Great Soul)
Jidda (Saudi Arabian city)Juddha, Yuddha (Warrior)
Cabul (Town in Israel)Kabul (Capital of Afghanistan)
Bashan (Region of Jordan)Bazana; Vashana (Ancient capital of Gujarat)
Manesseh (Territory and tribe of Israel)Manasa (Himalayan lake, near Mount Meru; also the name of a snake deity)
Laish (City of Canaan)Laish (Town in Afghanistan)
Cutha (Fort and city in ancient Southern Mesopotamia)Kuth; Cathia; Cutch (Part of Gujarat)
Hellenes (Ancient people and territory in Greece)Hellenes; Alinas (People and territory of Ancient India).
Javan (Father of Greeks; mentioned in Genesis).Yavana (Ancient Indo-Hebrew tribe)
Iberia (Spain)Abhira (Indo-Hebrew nation)
Brit (Great Britain)Bharat (True name of India)
Angles (Ancient people of England)Anguli (Ancient people of India)
Jutes, Jutis (Eastern tribe that invaded and settled in Europe) Yuddhi (Ancient Indian warriors)
Goths (Eastern tribe that invaded and settled in Europe)Guti; Gauda (Ancient Indian tribe that migrated to the Middle East)
Yemen (Arab country)Yamuna (River of India)
Yehudi (Jewish People)Yutiya; Yah-Khuda (Sanskrit name of the Indo-Hebraic Yadus)
Roma (Rome, Italy)Roma; Romaka (People and territory of Northern India)
Dubai (Nation of Arab Emirate)Dwab (Territory of ancient Afghanistan)
Sheba (Ancient Ethiopian kingdom)Siva; Sibi (Territory of ancient Yaudheyapura, India)
Syria (Middle Eastern home of the ancient Jews)Suriya (Mythical Indian territory)
Succoth (Place near Jordan and in Egypt)Sukhothai (Ancient Indian and Thai kingdom)
Talmud (Written Jewish teachings)Tal-Mudra (Sacred Indian teachings written on palm leaves)
Tallit (Jewish prayer shawl)Tal-Ata (Palmyra leaves worn on the shoulders as a raincoat)
Kippot (Skullcap worn by Orthodox Jews)Kaparda (Hair top-knot once worn by the first ancestors of the Indo-Hebrews)
Shalmanezer (Assyrian king who deported the "Lost Tribes" to India) Shalmanev (Tall, impressive person)
Baal (Golden calf first worshiped by the Jews)Balesar (Holy bull worshiped in India)

Linguistic Similarities Between Hebrew and Kashmiri

Holger Kersten wrote in Jesus Lived in India,

"The relation between ancient Israel and Kashmiri can most clearly be demonstrated linguistically. Kashmirian is different from all the other Indian languages, the origins of which are Sanskrit. The development of the language of Kashmir has been greatly influenced by the Hebrew. Abdul Ahad Azad writes, 'The language of Kashmir derives from Hebrew.' According to tradition, in ancient times Jewish peoples settled here, whose language changed into the Kashmirian of today. There are many Hebrew words that are quite obviously connected with the language of Kashmir." (pp. 68-69.)
I have inferred from Kersten's comments that he believes Kashmiri did not spring from Sanskrit. I disagree. When I was culling out Hebrew words from Grierson's Dictionary of the Kashmiri Language, I discovered that there are many more Sanskrit words in Kashmiri than Hebrew terms. However, I do agree that the Hebrews made more than a notable contribution to this little-known tongue.

"Since the Jews i.e. the Yedu tribes of Lord Krishna left the Dwarka region, the original Sanskrit that they spoke during Lord Krishna's time has undergone considerable change of pronunciation and admixture of words, so what was Sanskrit 5,742 years ago is now Hebrew." (World Vedic Heritage; by P. N. Oak; p. 530.)
In the Spanish edition of the German author Siegfried Obermeir's book on Jesus' life in Kashmir, ?Murio Jesus en Cachemira? (Did Jesus die in Kashmir?), the author acknowledges the Sanskrit origins of the language.
"One could perhaps ask whether the language called 'Kashmiri' could in some way be a close relative of Hebrew and Aramaic...The reply is a resounding 'no.' Kashmiri descends from Sanskrit. There exists only one explanation. The Jews who emigrated (to Kashmir) introduced their language there." (p.150.)
Professor Fida Hassnain, a Kashmiri authority on the life of Jesus Christ in his country, wrote in A Search for the Historical Jesus, "Today the Kashmiri language contains 30% Persian, 25% Arabic and 45% words from Sanskrit and other languages, including 9% from Hebrew." (p. 10.) Professor Hassnain mentioned in his book an Aramaic inscription beside the ruins of Gondaphorus' castle in Taxila, which actually confirms that St. Thomas was there: "A highly regarded foreign carpenter, who is a pious devotee of the Son of God, built this palace of cedar and ivory for the great king." The phrase "Son of God" confirms that Jesus actually existed. A stone relief of Thomas stands near this inscription. Indian archeologists have confirmed this fact.

Since the ancient Jews never forced their language on the peoples in their ambience, just their religion, I concur with authors Obermeir and Hassnain on this point.

In old times, Kashmiri didn't exist as a distinct language as it does today. The Kashmiri historical treatises state that the Brahmans and Kashatriya castes spoke Sanskrit; the Vaishyas and the Sudras spoke a language called Ap-Abram-Sha, which was supposed to be a degraded form of Tamil. Was this the original Asura language, or, perhaps, prototypical Hebrew? Some Hindu scholars think so. Abraham was the father of several different peoples, religions, and Semitic dialects. Abraham's influence formed at least part of the foundations of Judaism, Greek and Roman religious practices, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and others. When the "Lost Tribes" were taken to Northern India, they found a people with a similar religion, language, and cultural traits. It took no great effort for the "Lost Tribes" to assimilate completely. Later on, Hebrew, Dardic, Apabramsha, Sanskrit, Arabic, and other languages merged to form what we now call Kashmiri. Some scholars say that the Moslem invaders forbade the speaking of Apabramsha and Hebrew in Kashmir.

The Buddhists say that the Abhiraans spoke "Abhira." The Yadavas, the actual proto-typical Hebrews still living in India, also claim to have spoken a language called Abhiri. "The Natyasastra of Bharata described the language...as Abhiri or Sabari. It is well known that Abhiri was the language of the Abhiras." (Yadavas Through the Ages, by Yadav Singh; Vol. II, p. 4.) Yadav Singh's opinion on this matter may prove to be correct. Even today, Israeli Jews whose roots sink deep into Israeli soil are called "Sabaras."

I have taken from my Kashmiri dictionary a long list of words that are similar in pronunciation and meaning to Hebrew. I could have easily provided a list containing hundreds more, many of which I shall mention in later chapters. However, I hope that the following list will convince you that the Kashmiri language, one of the most little-known languages in the world, deserves more attention and study.

Judaism and Shaivite Hinduism Share the Same Names for God.

JudaismShaivism
Ish; Yish; Is; Isa; Issa; El; Al; etc.
(Suffixes and prefixes for "God")
The same in Shaivism
Yahve; Jahve; Tseeva (God)Shiva; Shaiva; Siva (God)
Elohim; Elokhim (God intellectualized)Lakhimi (Goddess of Prosperity); Lokhi; Lukh (Shiva)
El Shaddai (The Almighty)Saday; Sada (Shiva)
Ha-Kadosh (The Holy One)Hakh-e-Kheda (God's Duty)
El Elyon (Possessor of Heaven and Earth)Il Layun (Absorption in God)
Yesoda (Dual Sexual Nature of Life)Yeshoda (Shiva's Dual Sexual Nature)

Similar sacred symbolism and iconography are associated with both the Hebrew Yah-Veh and the Kashmiri Shaiva: The Holy Trinity; the flame; the cherub; the guardian angel; the snake; the bull; blowing of bull's horn, etc.

Hebrew and Kashmiri Cabalistic Terminology Is About the Same.

HebrewKashmiri
Ani (he spark of life)Agni (Vedic god of fire)
Avoda (work; labor)Vud; Wud (skilled labor)
Ayeen (void; non-being)Ayen (eternity)
Cabala (acceptance)Cabul (acceptance)
Guevara (force)Gav'r (surrounding and attacking)
Keter (crown)Kash'r (crown of the head)
Kijum (destiny)Ko-Yimi (path to death)
Klim (nothing)Kholi (nothing)
Malkuth (kingdom)Mulakh (kingdom)
Nefesh (soul)Naph's (soul; spirit self)
Sephiroth (spiritual energy centers)Sipath (spiritual energy centers)
Yesu; Yesh; Yeh; Yahu; Yakhu; Yah; Yao; Ie
(The Material Universe)
The same as in Judaism
Yesh me Ayeen (The Goal of Creation)Yech me ayen (Creation Fused to the Void)
Zohar (brilliance)Swar; Svar (Heaven; light; brilliance)

More Linguistic Proof of the Linkage Between India and the Middle East

My investigations into the Indian origins of the Jews and Holy Land place names are not the first to have been made. In the mid-part of the 19th century, the Identification Society of London, an organization dedicated to searching for the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, published the following list to prove that the Afghans, Tibetans, Kashmiris, and other Northwest Indian tribes are either descended from the Israelites or vice-versa. Not all the tribes, castes, and subcastes on their list have preserved their Jewishness. However, nearly all of them acknowledge their Jewish roots. As you read this list of names, remember that they exist in the area that Josephus said was peopled by the descendants of Shem. "These inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river (the Kabul river) and in part of Asia adjoining it. (Josephus...; Chapter VII-4.)

Many scholars believe that the Dravidians could have been the ancestors of the prototypical Jews, the Meluhhans, who came from the Tibetan plateau or from the Turanian homeland of Central Asia - the area originally peopled by the progeny of Shem.

As Kauleshwar Rai wrote in Ancient India,

"...there was a time when the Dravidians inhabited the whole of India including Sind, Baluchistan and the Punjab. Gradually, they migrated to Mesopotamia also." (p. 19.)

In the following list, all references to Indian tribes, castes, subcastes, and places will be listed at the left. Biblical and Hebrew names will be listed after each Indian word, accompanied by their biblical references. You will note that the comparative words are either identical or nearly identical. The differences are trivial. Even a non-linguist can notice that all these words sprang from the same source. The similarities are too abundant to be coincidental. Wanting to remain as conservative as possible, I present only a partial list. However, as conservative and brief as this list is, I believe I have presented enough examples to convince anyone that India did, indeed, at one time dominate in Bible Land.

Tribes, Castes, and Subcastes

Abri- Ibri (1 Chr. 24-27)
Amal - Amal (1 Chr. 7:35).
Asaul - Asahel (2 Chr. 17:18)
Asheriya - Asher (Gen. 30:13)
Azri - Azriel (! Chr. 5:24)
Bal. - Baal (1 Chr. 5:5)
Bala; Balah - Bala (Josh. 19:3)
Bakru - Bokheru (1 Chr. 7:6)
Baktu - Baca (1 Chr. 8:38)
Banniya - Baana (1 Chr. 11:30)
Bellu - Bela (Gen. 14:9)
Bera; Baru - Beerah (1 (Chr. 5:6)
Basaya - Basseiah (1 Chr. 6:40)
Beroth - Beeroth (2 Sam. 4:2)
Bilgai - Bilgah (Neh. 12:5)
Buhana - Bohan (Josh. 15:6)
Buir - Beor (Ps. 23:4)
Butt - Bath (1 Ki. 7:26)
Caleb; Kleb - Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18)
Dar; Dhar; Darku - Dor (1 Ki. 4:11)
Dara - Dara (1 Chr. 2:6)
Dum - Dumah (1 Chr. 1:30)
Gabba - Geba (Josh. 18:24)
Gaddar - Gedor (1 Chr. 4:4)
Gadha - Gad (1 Chr. 2:2)
Gaddi - Gaddi (Nu. 13:11)v Gani; Gani - Guni (1 Chr. 1:40)
Gareb - Gareb (1 Chr. 7:13)
Gomer - Gomer (Gen. 10:2)
Hahput - Hatipha (Neh. 7:56)v Iqqash - Ikkesh (1 Chr. 11:28)
Ishai - Ishui (1 Sam. 14:49)
Israel - Israel (Gen. 32:28)
Kahan Masu - Kahana; Kan, Kanah (Josh. 19:28)
Kalkul - Calcol (1 Chr. 2:6)
Kanaz - Kenaz (Ju. 3:9)
Kar - Careah (2 Ki. 25:23)
Karrah - Korah (Nu. 26:9)
Kaul - Caul (Isa. 3:18)
Kadu; Kaddua; Khadu - Cauda (Act. 27:16)
Kotru - Keturah (Gen. 25:4)
Laddu - Lud (1 Chr. 1:17)
Lavi; Laveh - Levi (1Chr. 2:1)
Magar - Magor (Jer. 22:3)
Mahlu - Mahali (Ex. 6:19)
Maikri - Machir (Josh. 17:1)
Malla; Maula - Maaleh (Josh. 15:3)
Mallak - Mallouck (1 Chr. 6:44)
Matri - Matri (1 Sam. 10:21)
Meresh - Meres (Esther 1:14)
Mir - Mearah (Josh. 13:4)
Mahsa; Mahsi - Massah (Ex. 17:7)
Moza - Moza (1 Chr. 7:36)
Musa - Moses
Nehru - Nahor (1 Chr. 1:26)
Opal; Upal - Ophel (2 Chr. 28:3)
Pareh - Paruah (1 Ki. 4:17)
Phalu; Pau - Phallu; Puah; Pua (Nu. 26:23)
Poot; Put - Phut; Put (a Chr. 1:8)
Raina - Rinnah (1 Chr. 4:20)
Raphu - Raphu (1 Ki. 11:23)
Reshu; Resh; Reshi - Rhesa (Luke 3:27)
Reu; Reu-wal - Reu (Gen. 12:18)
Reual - Reuel (Nu. 2:14)
Sachu - Sechu (1 Sam. 19:22)
Sam - Shem (Gen. 5:32)
Sapru; Sapra - Saphir (Mic. 1:11)
Seh - Siah (Neh. 7:47)
Shahmiri - Shamir (1 Chr. 24:24)
Shaul - Shaul (1 Chr. 4:24)
Shavi - Shaveh (Gen. 14:17)
Shora - Sherah (1 Chr. 7:2)
Shuah - Shuah (1 Chr. 4:11)

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